(1918-1970) President of Egypt from 1954-1970. Nasser came to power following the 1952 Free Officers' Coup in Egypt. As Egyptian President, he oversaw two regional wars with Israel
, including the 1956 War
in connection to the Suez Canal and the 1967 War
, during which Israel captured the Sinai Peninsula
, claiming it as a buffer zone. Nasser engaged in military action against the Israeli
presence in the Sinai until his acceptance of the US-brokered Rogers Plan in 1970 that promised a return of the Sinai if Egypt ended hostilities with Israel; Israel, the Palestine
Liberation Organization (PLO) and many Arab countries rejected this plan. Nasser was also well known for his socialist and pan-Arab ideas, his harsh policies toward the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and his support of the PLO. See "Gamal Abdal Nasser
," International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008.