(Commonly used in Arabic to mean "martyr," though literally means "witness" in Qur'anic Arabic.) It is a term used in Islam for Muslims who died while fulfilling a religious commandment, including jihad. In the context of the Israeli
conflict, the word "shahid" or "martyr" is used to refer to Palestinians or supporters of the Palestinian cause who have been killed in the conflict. It may refer to a Palestinian civilian killed by an Israeli, or a Palestinian fighter/militant, whether killed by a soldier, or in an attack on civilians, including suicide bombings. See "Martyrdom (Shahada)
," David Cook, Oxford Bibliographies.